EXENATIDE
(e-xe'na-tide)
Byetta
Classifications: antidiabetic agent, integrin mimetic
Pregnancy Category: C

Availability

250 mcg/mL injection

Actions

Improves glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus by mimicking the functions of incretin, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Exenatide enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying. These actions decrease glucagon stimulation of hepatic glucose output and decrease insulin demand.

Therapeutic Effects

Improves glycemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Uses

Adjunct treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in those inadequately managed by metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a combination of these agents.

Route & Dosage

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Adult: SC Initial dose of 5 mcg b.i.d., within 60 min prior to the morning and evening meal. After 1 mo. may increase to 10 mcg b.i.d., within 60 min prior to the morning and evening meal.

Administration

Adverse Effects (1%)

CNS: Asthenia, dizziness, restlessness, jittery feeling. GI: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, anorexia, gastroesophageal reflux. Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis or diaphoresis).

Interactions

Drug: Due to its ability to slow gastric emptying, exenatide can decrease the rate and/or serum levels of oral medications that require GI absorption.

Pharmacokinetics

Peak: 2 h. Elimination: Excreted primarily in the urine. Half-Life: 2.4 h.

Nursing Implications

Assessment & Drug Effects

Patient & Family Education


Common adverse effects in italic, life-threatening effects underlined; generic names in bold; classifications in SMALL CAPS; Canadian drug name; Prototype drug